Updated: Nov 28, 2020
Red and Yellow: Powerpoint
Purple: Professor's lecture
Green: Lecture put "in my own words"
Importance of Knowing Some History
Why care about history?
Antecedent/context of the present international system
Allows us to see how ideas of IR actors emerged and changed over time
Difficult to understand the present…
...without historical background
Theory and practice of IR is rooted in Europe
THE WESTPHALIAN SYSTEM EMERGES 30:00
System of sovereign states
Martin Luther Priest. Born in Germany. Telogen. Caused trouble for the Catholic Church
System of sovereign states: Each state has a government at the head of it. No one is a higher authority than them. 95 Thesis.
Thirty Years’ War (1618-48) in Europe
The Westphalian system came in at the end of the 30 year war. a 30 year war was fought in Europe in (1618-48).
Dispute over religion
Between Protestant and Catholics. Martin Luther started Protestantism. Free themselves from Pope rule.
Protestants fight to free themselves from the authority of the Pope
All European powers involved, ex. England
Definition of rich is different. Rich meant you own land, didn’t have money. Feudalism system = you lived on the land and everyone worked your land / village. Worked for an Aristocrat.
Protagonists saw “good v. evil”
Murder / ethnic cleansing. We are all catholic under one church.
Ends with economic bankruptcy, devastation, and loss of life throughout Europe
Treaty of Westphalia (1648) Ends with...
The Westphalia system emerges through a 30-year war, fought in what is known as Germany today, to free people from the Pope’s control. Martin Luther lights the match with his 95 theses that talked about the Catholic Church's corruption, especially how people had to buy their way into heaven. Martin Luther thought the way to get into heaven was how one acted on Earth, which had nothing to do with payment to the church. The war was fought between the new Protestant / Lutherans, an off branch of the Catholic church that Martin Luther started, to free themselves of the Pope’s control. The war ended with the Catholic church losing through bankruptcy along with devastation and loss of life. A type of genocide occurred. This war ended with the “Treaty of Westphalia.”
BACKGROUND ON WESTPHALIA
Middle Ages (400-1000)
Government authority. Government controlled by the church.
All governmental authority, IR in Europe controlled by the catholic church
Political and economic life decentralized, provincial
People lived in villages. On the land owned by Aristocrats. Europe = who owned the land. All enherated to the first born son. Who was the most powerful.
Monarchies = realms
Lands owned by kings / aristocracy. King is the head of the aristocracy. All the money came from the crops that were farmed on the land and sold.
Crude technologies, small isolated units of gov.
Societies organized by feudalism
Feudalism is a system where one of the villages, their parents were farmers. Didn’t own land, but took care of it. There was no money to buy land. Had to be an aristocracy to buy land. Peasants were loyal to the aristocrat who they worked for. Had to do whatever aristocrate said. Aristicarte fought a lot to take over other lands / takeovers / castles.
Back in the middle ages, everything was run on a feudalist system where the aristocrats owned everything. The King was the main aristocratic ruler that was put in place by the Pope. The feudalist system worked by all the land staying in the Aristocrats' hands that was inherited by the firstborn son. This land had peasants who worked that land - for very little pay - and you were born into the peasantry. Peasants could not buy or own land. Peasants stayed loyal to the Aristocratic family. Peasants had to do whatever the Aristocrat said, including becoming a soldier to help fight and take over another aristocratic property. Money was made by the crops generated and sold on the land that was farmed by the peasants who were tied to that land.